Under Scots law, there are three potential outcomes of a criminal trial: "proven" (guilty), "not guilty", and "not proven."
The "not proven" [wiki] verdict, also called the Scottish Verdict or the "bastard verdict," is where although the juries don't think that the case has been proven against the defendant, they also not convinced of his innocence.
the trial by combat thing I remember hearing about it at the time, an armed robber managed to bargian a significant reduction of his sentence in return for passing on the Trial by combat.
Young nasty robber VS septegenarian judge.
Yup, you fight the judge.