In 1942, Gardner Dane wrote an article about how the world would look like by 1975. Gardner predicted that a devastating World War III would force people to move underground in order to survive.
Though obviously the war didn't happen, some of Gardner's predictions came true (or close enough, anyways):
What will happen in the twenty-first century we cannot tell. A century hence, man may have learned to use the unlimited and terrible power of the atom. He may be able to trap the rays of the sun and miraculously render obsolete the electric generator, the gasoline engine and the Diesel motor. Rocket ships may displace the motored airplanes as effectively and quickly as the automobile displaced the horse in the early part of the twentieth century.
Paleo-Future has more: http://www.paleofuture.com/2008/01/will-war-drive-civilization-underground.html - via Gerry Canavan