Could Retired Space Shuttles Be Used as Space Stations?

When the space shuttle program shuts down, the orbiters will be sent to museums. Would it be more cost-effective to recycle them as space stations? Bjorn Carey of Popular Science says no. First, shuttles only carry about 14 days worth of power. But a larger problem would be refitting them so that they'd be habitable on a long-term basis:

But what really makes a shuttle station a bad idea is the lack of amenities. The shuttles don’t have room for all the exercise equipment that astronauts need to stave off rapid bone and muscle loss. They don’t have individual bedroom compartments like the ISS does; to get some shuteye, astronauts instead zip themselves in sleeping bags and Velcro themselves to a wall. They don’t even have a garbage chute. “They’d have to figure out some way to bundle up waste—human waste included—and toss it out a hatch,” Curie says. “And because there isn’t a launcher to shoot the waste into the atmosphere to burn up, it would just float and collect around the outside of the station.” | Photo: NASA

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They should probably manufacture them so that when the do finish being a space shuttle they can be bolted on to the existing structure .. sort of a phase 2 version of itself.
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Cost effective, no. The cost of a shuttle launch is quite a lot and you'd still need a way to get the crew up and down (or at least down). There was talk back in the day of converting an external tank into livable space; they already make it 95% of the way to orbit. However, launching a "wet" station like that comes with all kinds of complications.

The original Skylab plan was to be a wet station as well, but they couldn't figure out how to get all the unused propellant out and fittings in once it got to orbit. When a spare Saturn V turned up, they had enough extra power to just launched a dry station and be done with it.
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