Animals That Can Count

Michael Tennesen writes in Scientific American that biologists suspect that robins, baby chicks, rhesus monkeys, and parrots may have the ability to count. Although they may not have fixed numerals, they have have concepts of relative quantities:

Elizabeth Brannon of Duke University has conducted similar experiments with rhesus monkeys, getting them to match the number of sounds they hear to the number of shapes they see, proving they can do math across different senses. She also tested the monkeys’ ability to do subtraction by covering a number of objects and then removing some of them. In all cases, the monkeys picked the correct remainder at a rate greater than chance. And although they might not grasp the deeper concept of zero as a number, the monkeys knew it was less than two or one, conclude Brannon and her colleagues in the May Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.

Although Brannon feels that animals do not have a linguistic sense of numbers—they aren’t counting “one, two, three” in their heads—they can do a rough sort of math by summing sets of objects without actually using numbers, and she believes that ability is innate. Brannon thinks that it might have evolved from the need for territorial animals “to access the different sizes of competing groups and for foraging animals to determine whether it is good to stay in one area given the amount of food retrieved versus the amount of time invested.”


Image: U.S. Department of the Interior

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Check out and for some related research. Parrots demonstrate a linguistic understanding of number. They can add, too.
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My uncle has had border collies on his farm for two dozen years and I'd swear they can count. They seem to know if a sheep has wandered off and I can't imagine how unless they have some way of knowing how many there were to begin with.
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