I can't find much information about the contraption pictured above, but I gather that an artist in Asheville, North Carolina made a machine that launches rubber chickens a considerable distance using a motorcycle engine. The video shows him firing the chickens at what appears to be a sculpture made of boxing gloves.
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UPDATE 4.23.11: Commenter Ashevilleisawesome lets us now that the artist is named Sean Pace, and you can read an excellent article about his work (including the Chicken Shooter) here. Thanks!