How an Island Full of Landmines Led to a Thriving Penguin Population

War- what is it good for? Well, if the Falkland Islands are any indication, it certainly helps penguins.

Rockhopper Penguin (Image credit: Flickr user Marcus Borg)

For several hundred years, human activity on the Falkland Islands -roughly 300 miles of the Argentine coast- threatened its penguins' survival. But the trend started to reverse in 1982, when Argentina and Britain began duking it out for control of the Falklands. Turns out, a war, a few landmines, and some unstable diplomatic relations might have been just enough to get the penguins back on track.

The Falkland Islands are small. Collectively, the 200-plus islands that make up the Falklands are only about as big as Connecticut. But through the years, they've managed to inspire some Texas-sized international contention. Ever since Argentina gained independence from Spain in 1816, it's been vying for control of the Falklands in one form or another. Some Argentines even claims possession of the region today, even though Queen Elizabeth's face graces every piece of currency, the Union Jack appears on the official flag, and every other government in the world recognizes British rule over the Falklands. Despire the fact that Argentina famously lost its military bid for control of the islands back in 1982, national polls still show 80 percent of Argentines want their government to take back the Islas Malvinas, as they're known in the Spanish-speaking nation.

King Penguins (Image credit: Flickr user andym8y)

So what is it the Argentines so jealously covet? Hard to say. The Falkland Islands aren't home to much, other than about 3,000 humans, 700,000 sheep, and a few fishing installations. What they do have, however, is an enormous population of penguins from five different species -the Southern Rockhoppers, the Magellanic, the King, the Gentoo, andthe Macaroni. Their names derive from, respectively, the ability to hop on rocks, a celebrated circumnavigator, a British ruler, a religious slur, and a slang reference to flashy dressers. With those five species combined, the Falklands are home to to a penguin army more than 1 million strong. That's pretty impressive, but it's believed the number was closer to 10 million only 300 years ago.

In the 18th century, the whale oil industry was booming, and the Falklands had their fair share of whales. Not coincidentally, the French, British, and Spanish groups began showing up on the islands to get in on the action. But whale oil isn't exactly the easiest thing to produce. First, whales are brought ashore. Then their blubber is separated from their bodies, and the fat is rendered into oil in gigantic vats of boiling water. The Falkland Islands had plenty of whales, but they're mostly void of timber, and burning whale oil to render whale oil seemed a little silly. So how did the settlers make their Falkland outposts survive? "Francoise, throw another penguin on the fire!" Yes, as it turned out, penguins made surprisingly good kindling, thanks to layers of protective (and, apparently, highly flammable) fat beneath their skin. And it didn't hurt that they're so easy to catch. Penguins are flightless and unafraid of humans, so anytime the rendering fires got low, whalers simply grabbed a penguin or two and tossed 'em in.

Gentoo Penguins (Image credit: Flickr user andym8y)

ONE FISH, TWO FISH

Fortunately for the penguins, the whale oil business died out in the 1860s with the discovery of fossil fuels. That left the islands with little commercial industry, and the worst thing the penguins had to worry about for a while was the occasional egg theft. But peaceful human-penguin relations hit a roadblock again in 1982 when Argentina made its ill-fated attempt to reclaim the Falklands.

Although the British presence on the Falkland Islands has long been a sore spot for Argentina, no Argentine leader had ever tried to force a national claim to the land. At the time, however, the military government, led by General Leopoldo Galtieri, was in a unique situation. Already unpopular at home because of his habit of kidnapping and killing opposition leaders, Galtieri started to get truly nervous when the Argentine economy began to sink. Fearing outright rebellion, Galtieri tried to enlist the spirit of nationalism by invading the largely unprotected Falkland Islands on April 2. He quickly declared victory over the British, but his success was short-lived. Unfortunately for Galtieri, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher didn't believe in capitulating to dictators, even regarding land as inconsequential and unprofitable as the Falklands. The United Kingdom quickly struck back. In the ensuing two-month conflict, more than 1,000 Argentine servicemen died, and Galtieri's political downfall was solidified.

Magellanic Penguin (Image credit: Flickr user Bruno Furnari)

When the dust cleared, Britain's rulers realized they'd just spent several million pounds to assert control over the Falklands, and it was probably in their best interest to find some way to prove that the expense had been worthwhile. Fishing seemed like the best way to make the Falklands economically self-sufficient, so the British government set up an exclusive fishing zone around the islands and began selling permits to everyone from local islanders to gigantic international fishing companies. It was a fine plan, except that the penguins relied on those same fish for survival. Before long, competing with humans for food had become a far greater threat to penguins than whaling had ever been. In a single decade, the Islands' penguin population dropped from more than 6 million to fewer than 1 million.

THE SPOILS OF WAR

The Falkland Islands War, and the dwindling supply of fish that came with it, seriously threatened the local penguins. But, ironically enough, it also led to their gradual comeback. Since the dispute, Britain and Argentina have approached one another on diplomatic eggshells, if at all. As a result, neither side has been willing to risk angering the other by drilling for oil off the Falklands coast -even though experts estimate that 11 billion barrels worth of oil lie buried out there. That's good news for all of penguinkind. In other parts of the world, even small amounts of oil leaked from drilling stations have proved disastrous for penguins. The flightless birds rely on a very specific balance of oils on their feathers in order to maintain perfect buoyancy. When mixed with crude oil, penguins will either sink and drown or float and starve. But as long as tensions remain high between the two nations, the Falkland penguins are in the clear.

The Falklands War also left the penguins with a bizarre kind of habitat protection.  During Argentina's occupation of the islands, its military laid landmines along the beaches and pastureland near the capital city to deter the British from reclaiming the area. So far, those landmines haven't killed anyone, but the well-marked and fenced-off explosive zones have made for prime penguin habitat. The penguins aren't heavy enough to set off the mines, but because sheep and humans are, the little guys have to minefields all to themselves.

Macaroni Penguin (Image credit: Flickr user Terry Saunders)

Today there is still an estimated 25,000 landmines in the Falkland Islands. Over the years, they've come in pretty handy not only for protecting the penguin habitat from over-grazing, but also for keeping out overzealous tourists. Consequently, Falkland Islanders have decided that maybe having landmines is not such a bad thing. Even though the British government is obligated to remove them by 2009, the islanders recently put forth a proposal calling for their government to instead clean up the same number of mines in greater-risk areas such as Angola, Cambodia, or Afghanistan. After all, signs warning "Keep away from the penguins" will never be as effective as "Keep away from the penguins -or die."

Ed. Note: Although the British began removing the landmines in a 2009-2010 pilot program, thousands still remain there today.

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The above article by Hank Green is reprinted with permission from the March-April 2006 issue of mental_floss magazine.

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China had a legal right to reclaim Hong Kong,and while the brits have been cads and bounders at times, they have always stuck to their word.
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It's lovely that people are writing articles about the Falklands, unfortunately this is incredibly inaccurate. The situation between Argentina and the Falklands hasn't prevented oil exploitation it is simply the case that the area is still in 'exploration' phase. Also the writer claims fishing depleted the penguins but gives no explanation why they have since apparently increased (fishing continues....) but starts waffling (wrongly) about oil.. Please please research your articles before submitting them... Best wishes, another journalist.
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